Agustin De Iturbide Biography, Birth, Family, Education, Marriage, career

The full name of Agustin De Iturbide is also known as Agustín Cosme Damián de Iturbide y Arámburu and Augustine of Mexico. They formed a successful political and military alliance during the Mexican War of Independence.

Which took control of Mexico City on 27 September 1821. Independence was decisively achieved for Mexico. He was exiled to Europe in May 1823. When he returned to Mexico in July 1824, he was arrested. And he was hanged.

Agustin De Iturbide Bio

NameAgustín Cosme Damián de Iturbide y Arámburu
NicknameAgustín de Iturbide
Birth27 September 1783
birthplaceValladolid, Viceroyalty of New Spain
ReligionRoman Catholicism
Age40 year ( 1824 )
Died19 July 1824
death placePadilla, Tamaulipas, Mexico
Burial26 October 1838
burial placeMexico City Cathedral
SignatureAgustín I's signature


Augustine Cosme Damien d’Iturbide y Aramburu was born on 27 September 1783 in Valladolid. Which is now the capital of Michigan Morelia. He was baptized in the cathedral with the names of Saints Cosmus and Damian. The fifth child of his parents was born. He was the only surviving male and eventually became the head of the family.

Agustin De Iturbide Family

Agustin De Iturbide’s father’s name is “José Joaquín de Iturbide y Arreguí”. And his mother’s name is “María Josefa de Arámburu y Carrillo de Figueroa”. Augustine’s parents were part of the privileged class of Valladolid. Those who had land in the haciendas of Apo and Guaracha, as well as in the nearby Quirios.

Agustín de Iturbide’s father José Joaquín de Iturbide y Arreguí came from a family of Basque nobility. Which was confirmed by King Juan II of Aragon. One of his ancestors, Martin de Iturbide, was appointed royal merino in the high valley of the Baztan Valley in the 1430s. And since the 15th century, many members of the family have held political or administrative positions in the Basque Country. As the youngest son, Joaquin did not inherit the family land.

So he went to New Spain to make his fortune there. While the nobles and those of Spanish ancestry of Augustine’s father were not in doubt. His mother’s ancestry was less clear. His mother was of pure Spanish blood. Who was born in Mexico? And so Crayola. Some sources say that she came from a high-ranking family in Michoacán. Ethnicity was important for advancement, including military rank, in the Spanish colonial era. And some indigenous dynasties were often disadvantaged. Agustin De Iturbide insisted throughout his life that he was creole (born of Spanish origin).


Augustine studied at a Catholic seminary in Valladolid. Which is called the Collegio de San Nicolas. Was enrolled in a program for secular officials. Although he was not a special student.

After that, he worked for a short time as a supervisor in a hilly area in his family. Knowing that he was a very good horseman. As a teenager, Iturbide enlisted in the royal army. He was accepted as a criollo, he was appointed second lieutenant in the provincial regiment. He was promoted to full lieutenant in 1806.

Emperor of Mexico

When members of the Spanish royal family declined the proposed Mexican throne. So the Creole spirit had turned to invest in Iturbide with respect. On 18 May 1822, a sergeant in Iturbide’s own Celia regiment started a “popular” movement to declare Iturbide emperor. The Liberator was quite reluctant.

But the next day the hall was jammed by the followers of Iturbide, a Congress mob. He was formally elected emperor. The lack of quorum casts doubt on the validity of this order. But the action had a lot of popular support.

Iturbide was crowned Emperor Augustine I on 21 July 1822 amidst an extended view. The new emperor presented a splendid figure in his royal garb. Significant efforts were made by Iturbide to build an extended court to match the grandeur and pomp of European monarchs. He sought to preserve the traditional privileges of the Spanish crown while emphasizing his right to appoint church officials as well as civil administrators.

In addition, even before assuming the royal title, he had begun preparations to expand Mexican sovereignty to the south. And in December 1821, he was sent troops to Central America in a futile attempt. Iturbide had proved to be a shrewd ruler. And his rule was characterized by frequent disputes with the legislature. which challenged efforts to concentrate power in his own hands. The Emperor dissolved the Congress on 31 October 1822, after imprisoning several deputies.

Iturbide had already lost its initial popularity. And soon a rebellion broke out. Iturbide was abandoned on 19 March 1823. And soon after was left for Europe. where he was concerned about reports of a Spanish campaign against Mexico. Believing that only he can save his motherland. He offered to “keep his sword” to destroy the nation. Interpreting this as an attempt to seize power, the Mexican Congress declared him a traitor. And he was sentenced to death. Iturbide had left for Mexico before learning the decree.

Military career

In the early 19th century there was political unrest in New Spain. One of Iturbide’s first military missions was to help stop a rebellion led by Gabriel J. de Yermo. As well as becoming a formidable enemy to the rebels, it quickly grew in popularity among the kings. A unique horseman and a brave dragon who had a reputation for winning against statistical odds. His nickname in the area earned him the nickname “El Dragon de Hierro” or “The Iron Dragon” in terms of his skill and position.

He was given an important charge in the army. However, he was accused by the local people of using his authority for economic gain. Although he was described as brave in battle. Those allegations could not be substantiated but he had to pay the price for his position. He had turned down the offer to regain his position. Because he felt that his honor had been damaged. He may have been involved in the initial conspiracy to declare independence in 1809.

Which was led by Jose Mariano Michelina in Valladolid. Documents from him and Hidalgo suggest that he was a distant relative of Miguel Hidalgo, the early leader of the rebel army. Hidalgo wrote a letter to Iturbide offering him a high position in his army. Iturbide wrote in his memoirs that he considered the proposal. But eventually, it was turned down. Because they wrongly carried out Hidalgo’s rebellion and considered their methods barbaric.

Combating insurgency

After the War of Independence in 1810, Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla offered Augustin de Iturbide the rank of general in the rebel forces. Augustine turned down the offer. Because he rejected those atrocities. Which largely untrained rebel forces chose to fight for the imperial army rather than the atrocities committed against Spanish civilians.

During the war, Augustin fought against General José María Morelos from 1810 to 1816 and Vicente Guerrero in 1820. Augustine’s first encounter with the rebel army took place in 1810 in the Toluca Valley. When he moved from Valladolid to Mexico City. In late October imperial and rebel forces were stationed on the east bank of the Lerma River. What is now known as the Battle of Monte de las Cruces? Royalist forces under the command of Colonel Torqueto Trujillo withdrew from the area.

This allowed the rebels to take Toluca. Iturbide had distinguished himself in this battle of bravery and perseverance, despite being defeated by his side. He later said in his memoirs that this was the only battle he had ever considered defeated. Iturbide’s next major encounter with the rebels will take place in Morelos himself and his hometown of Valladolid. Iturbide leads the defenders. He demonstrated his tactical prowess and cavalry by breaking the siege of Morelos with a well-mannered cavalry.

Due to which the rebels were forced to retreat into the jungle. Iturbide was promoted to captain for that action. As a captain, he pursued rebel forces in the area. Albino did manage to capture Licega y Rayon. Which led to another promotion. Iturbide was promoted to the rank of colonel by Viceroy Felix Maria Calleza in 1813. and made him in charge of the regiment at Celia.

Then in 1814, he was named commander of the army in the Bajau region of Guanajuato. where he continued to pursue the rebels in a heavily fought area. and was the main military rival of Morelos from 1813 to 1815. The next major confrontation between Morelos and Iturbide took place on 5 January 1814 in the Puruarán city of Michoacán. In the battle, the rebel forces were badly defeated by the forces led by Iturbide. This forced Morelos to retreat and leave the hacienda in Santa Lucia.

Mariano Matamoros and Ignacio López commanded the Rayon rebel army. Which killed more than 600 rebels and captured 700. The fight marked a turning point as Morelos would never again be able to achieve the same level of competency as it was before the defeat. Morelos was constantly pursued by Iturbide and other Spanish commanders. He was captured and executed at the end of 1815.

Criollo rebellion

Iturbide fought from 1810 to 1820 against those who sought to abolish the Spanish monarchy and the authority of the Bourbon dynasty to rule in New Spain and replace that rule with an independent government. He was strongly associated with Kriolos. However, events in Spain also created problems. Because of the monarchy for which the class was fighting. He was in serious trouble.

The 1812 Code of Cédiz, re-established after a successful Rigo coup in Spain in 1820, established a constitutional monarchy that greatly limited the powers of Ferdinand VII. There was serious concern in Mexico that the Bourbons would be forced to leave Spain entirely. This led to the disintegration of the vice royal power in Mexico City and the development of a political void that the Mexican nobility sought to fill. It demanded limited representation and autonomy for itself in the empire. There was an idea in the class that if Mexico became independent or autonomous and Ferdinand was deposed he could become king of Mexico.


Iturbide met with O’Donjou and had hurriedly negotiated a treaty called the Treaty of Córdoba. A document similar to the Plan de Iguala sought to guarantee an independent monarchy for New Spain under the Bourbon dynasty. The successor state would invite Ferdinand VII to reign as emperor, or originally his brother, Don Carlos. If both refused, a suitable king would be sought in the various European royal houses.

In the meantime, the Viceroy would be replaced by a Regency. All existing laws, including the Constitution of 1812, would remain in force until a new constitution was written for Mexico. A major element was added to O’Donzo’s suggestion. If Spain denied the right to appoint a regent for the Mexican Empire, the Mexican Congress would have the freedom to choose what it deems fit to be emperor.

That complex section was not in Iturbide’s Plan de Iguala. A point against the argument that Iturbide had entertained the idea of ​​becoming a ruler. When he started a campaign for the independence of Mexico. To demonstrate the coalition’s military might, Iturbide coordinated with fellow imperial and rebel commanders in the provinces to revise the strategy of encircling Marixo City from the periphery that Morelos had planned in 1811–1814.

Agustin De Iturbide had the advantage of being on the side of the majority of the former imperial army. Iturbide marched up to Mexico City with an army of three guarantors on his birthday, 27 September 1821; the army was greeted by enthusiastic crowds. Those who bowed down in victory adorned themselves with the tricolor (red, white, and green) of the army. “¡Viva Iturbide I!” The sound of crying was heard for the first time that day. The next day Mexico was declared an independent state.

The remains of the royal army returned to Veracruz and were captured at the Palace of San Juan de Ulua. and O’Donoghue who held an important position in the government of the new empire. He died soon after being humiliated by his Spaniard compatriots. Iturbide was appointed chairman of the Provisional Governing Junta. which elected a five-person regency that would temporarily rule newly independent Mexico. The junta had 36 members who had legal authority until the convocation of Congress.

Iturbide controlled junta membership and those matters. The new government itself was extremely loyal to Iturbide. Opposition groups include old rebels as well as many progressives and those loyal to Ferdinand VII. Many liberals and progressives also belonged to the Masonic Lodge of the Scottish Rites. Because of which these branches of protest were known as the Ascosis (Scots).

Iguala’s plan was an agreement between different groups. But after independence, it became clear that some of the promises he had made would prove to be very difficult, if not impossible. That situation had started turmoil even among those in power. Iturbide was moved to Mexico City. and settled in a large palace building. Which is now called Eturbide’s Palace.

The mansion was lent to him by his family but he did not live in it. Iturbide had lived exceptionally well. He had also sought to give priority to his army and personally elected ministers. Meanwhile, Ferdinand VII had rejected the offer of the Mexican throne. and had refused to accept the status of any member of his family. And the Spanish Cortes rejected the Treaty of Córdoba.

Agustin De Iturbide Marriage

Iturbide in 1805 when he was 22 years old. He was then married to Ana Maria Josefa Ramona de Huart y Muniz. who were members of the Marquis family of Altamira at Tagle House? She came from a wealthy family of merchants and landowners from Valladolid. She was the daughter of the wealthy and powerful dynasty Isidro de Huart.

She was the granddaughter of the district governor and Marquis of Altamira. The couple bought the Appio Hacienda in the small town of Marvatio with a dowry of 100,000 pesos.

Agustin De Iturbide Interesting Fact

During his absence, the Mexican Congress which was formally re-established by Augustin I. declared him “a traitor and illegitimate. If present in Mexican territory. And whoever helped him in his return. He was declared a public enemy of the state.”

Iturbide returned to Mexico in July 1824 unaware of the offer and warned the government of a plot to reconquer Mexico. He was arrested when he landed in Tamil Nadu. And later he was executed by hanging.

In 1838 his remains were transferred to Mexico City. and was buried with honors in the chapel of San Felipe de Jesus in the Metropolitan Cathedral. Where they are displayed in the color of the glass.

Iturbide joined the Royalist army fighting the rebels during the early stages of the war for Mexico’s independence.


Q: Where was Agustín de Iturbide born?

A: Valladolid, Viceroyalty of New Spain

Q: What is Agustin de Iturbide Father’s name?

A: José Joaquín de Iturbide y Arreguí

Q: When was the Died of Agustín de Iturbide?

A: 19 July 1824

Q: What religion does Agustín de Iturbide belong to?

A: Roman Catholicism

Q: Where was Agustín de Iturbide buried?

A: Mexico City Cathedral ( 26 October 1838 )