Christian X biography, Birth, Family, Education, Marriage, Honours, Death

Christian X was the king of Denmark from 1912 to 1947. and was the sole king (as Kristjan X) of Iceland between 1918 and 1944. He was a member of the House of Glücksburg, a branch of the House of Oldenburg. And the first king, King Frederick VII, was born into a Danish royal family.

Christian X Bio

nameChristian Carl Frederik Albert Alexander Vilhelm
nicknameChristian X of Denmark
Birth26 September 1870
birthplaceCharlottenlund Palace, Copenhagen, Denmark
aged 76 ( 20 April 1947 )
ReligionLutheran
PredecessorFrederick VIII
SuccessorFrederick IX
Reign14 May 1912 – 20 April 1947
Died20 April 1947
place of deathAmalienborg Palace, Copenhagen, Denmark
BurialRoskilde Cathedral, Roskilde, Denmark
MoviesVejle byråd nr. 4
SignatureChristian X's signature

Birth

Christian was born on 26 September 1870 at Charlottenlund Palace, Copenhagen, Denmark. Which was located on the island of New Zealand in Denmark on the shore of the Øresund Strait, 10 kilometers north of Copenhagen.

Christian X Family

Christian X of Denmark’s father’s name is Frederick VIII of Denmark. And mother’s name is Louise of Sweden. His father was the eldest son of King Christian IX of Denmark and Louise of Hesse-Kassel. And her mother was the only daughter of King Charles XV of Sweden and Norway and Louise of the Netherlands.

He was baptized on 31 October 1870 by the Bishop of Zeeland, Hans Lassen Martensen, in the chapel of the Christiansborg Palace under the name Christian Karl Friedrich Albert Alexander Wilhelm. Christian X of Denmark has seven brothers and sisters. king Christian X of Denmark wife name is Alexandrine of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. Christian and Alexandrine had two sons. Prince Frederick was born in 1899. and Prince Nood who was born in 1900. He lived at the Emlienberg Palace in Copenhagen. which became his main residence. Whereas Sargenfrei Palace in the north of Copenhagen became his summer residence.

Education

Christian was less than two years older than his brother, Prince Carl. And in 1887 a joint confirmation of the two princes was found in the chapel of the Christianborg Palace. He began military education as the first Danish monarch after passing the student test in 1889. Which was a romance for the princes at that time. and later served with the 5th Dragoon Regiment. and later studied at the Officers’ Academy in Randers from 1891 to 1892.

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Easter Crisis of 1920

Christianity provoked the Easter Crisis in April 1920. Perhaps the most decisive event in the development of the Danish monarchy was in the twentieth century. The immediate cause was a conflict between the king and cabinet over Schleswig’s reunification with Denmark. Joe was a former Danish ruler who was defeated by Prussia during the Second Battle of Schleswig. Danish claims to the area lasted until the end of World War I.

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When the defeat of the Germans made it possible to settle the dispute. According to the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, the nature of Schleswig was to be determined by two votes. One in North Schleswig did not come to the other in Central Schleswig Holstein. Because it was dominated by an ethnic German majority and remained part of the post-war German state according to the prevailing sentiment of the time.

Seventy-five percent in North Schleswig voted to rejoin Denmark. And twenty-five percent had voted to remain with Germany. In this opinion, the whole region was considered as an indivisible unit. And the whole territory was awarded to Denmark.

The situation was reversed in Central Schleswig with eighty percent voting for Germany and twenty percent for Denmark. In this vote, each municipality decided its future. And the German majority had prevailed everywhere. In light of these results, the government of Prime Minister Karl Theodor Zelle decided that integration with northern Schleswig could proceed.

While Central Schleswig would remain under German control. Many Danish nationalists felt that the city of Flensburg, at least in central Schleswig, should be returned to Denmark regardless of the outcome of the referendum. Given the large Danish minority there and the general prospect of seeing Germany permanently weakened in the future. Christian X agreed with these sentiments. and ordered Prime Minister Zahle to involve Flensburg in the reunification process.

Since Denmark became a parliamentary democracy in 1901 from Düntzer’s cabinet. Zalen felt that he was not obliged to abide by it. He had rejected the order. and had resigned after several days of heavy exchanges with the king. After this Christian X fired the rest of the cabinet. And had it replaced with an actual caretaker cabinet.

The dismissal caused protests and an almost revolutionary atmosphere in Denmark. And for a few days, the future of the monarchy was in doubt. In light of this, talks started between King and members of the Social Democrats. Faced with a possible rebellion against the Danish crown, Christian X stood up and fired his government. A compromise cabinet was established until the elections by the end of that year.

To date, this is the last time the Danish monarch has attempted political action without the full support of parliament. After the crisis, Christian x Denmark completely lost his low status and had spent the last quarter-century of his reign as a full constitutional monarch.

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World War II

At 4 a.m. on 9 April 1940, Nazi Germany launched a surprise attack on Denmark, defeating the Danish army and navy and destroying the Danish Army Air Corps. Christian X quickly realized that Denmark was in an impossible position. Its area and population were sufficiently small for any lasting period against Germany.

As a result, its flat land would be easily overturned by German Panzers. Unlike his brother, King Haakon VII of Norway and Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands, King George II of Greece, Grand Duchess Charlotte of Luxembourg, King Peter II of Yugoslavia, Eduard Benezian of Czechoslovakia, and Edward Benz of Poland during their time in their living in the capital. which for the Danish people was a visible symbol of the national cause.

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Christian’s official speeches reflected the government’s official policy of cooperating with the occupying forces until Germany imposed martial law in August 1943. But because of this, the Danish people were seen as “mentally resistant”. Despite his age and precarious position during the first two years of the German occupation, he accompanied the groom on his horse through the Copenhagen Jubilee. Used to be left alone by a guard.

A popular way for Danes to display patriotism and quiet resistance against German occupation was to have a Danish flag with a small square button and the crown of the king. The emblem was called Kangmorket. In addition, he helped the Danish Jews to depopulate Sweden where they would be saved from Nazi persecution.

In 1942, Adolf Hitler sent a long telegram congratulating Christian on his 17th birthday. The king’s answer was just a telegram. Spreche minen besten Dank aus. Chr. Rex was. This little perceived telegram crisis had enraged Hitler. who immediately recalled his ambassador from Copenhagen and expelled the Danish ambassador from Germany.

The government led by Wilhelm Bohl was fired as a result of German pressure. and was replaced by a new cabinet led by non-Party member and veteran diplomat Eric Skavenius. who expected the Germans to become more allies. Christian was more or less illegal after he fell with his horse on 19 October 1942.

His comfort reigned. His role in shaping the Easter Crisis of 1920 had dampened his popularity. But his daily ride Telegram crisis and the stories of praise spread by Danish-American circles had made him a favorite national symbol again.

Reign over Iceland

With the introduction of the new Danish-Icelandic Act of Union at the end of 1918, Iceland, a long section of Danish territory, was redefined as a sovereign state in a personal union with the King of Denmark. This made Christian the king of most of the autonomous kingdom of Iceland in addition to being the king of Denmark.

Christian was the first and only king to rule Iceland as a sovereign state, as opposed to ruling as a large state province. Following the German occupation of Denmark in 1941 and the Allied alliance with Iceland, the Icelandic government concluded that Christian Icelanders were unable to fulfill their duties as heads of state. and thus appointed Sween Björnsson as regent to act as interim heads of state. Sween has previously served as Iceland’s ambassador to Copenhagen.

In 1944 when Denmark was still under German occupation. The people of Iceland voted in a referendum to sever all ties with the Danish king and establish a republic. Thus Christian’s title as King of Iceland had become null and void. And Sven Björnsson was elected the first President of Iceland by the Parliament of Iceland. Christians who believed that Sven had assured them that Iceland would not move towards independence while trade was going on. Had felt deeply betrayed.

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At the insistence of his relative the King of Sweden, Christian still accepted the result. And on 17 June 1944, a congratulatory message was sent to Iceland during the celebration of the founding of the republic. It was nice to read the letter of the king. It continued to be included in its royal name until his death in 1947.

Christian X Marriage

Christian married “Alexandrine” of Mecklenburg-Schwerin in Cannes on 26 April 1898. She was the daughter of Frederick Francis III Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Grand Duchess Anastasia Mikhailovna of Russia.

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Christian x Honours

  • 26 September 1888 : Knight of the Elephant
  • 15 July 1897 : Knight of the Order of the Royal House of Chakri
  • 4 July 1901 : Knight of the Golden Fleece
  • 22 June 1906 : Grand Cross of St. Olav, with Collar
  • 22 April 1908 : Honorary Grand Cross of the Bath (civil)
  • 26 January 1910 : Kingdom of Italy: Knight of the Annunciation
  • 29 April 1925 : Estonia: Cross of Liberty, Grade I Class I

Death

During his daily ride, king Christian x Denmark fell from his horse and suffered injuries that had a lasting impact on his health. It had become more or less invalid for the rest of his life. Christian X is interred with other members of the Danish royal family at Roskilde Cathedral near Copenhagen after his death at the  Amalienborg Palace in Copenhagen on 20 April 1947. Although he was behind the politics of Erik Scavenius. A type of cloth worn by members of the Danish resistance movement was placed on his coffin under the armband castrum doloris.

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Interesting Fact

  • Many urban legends are associated with Christian X. One of them relates to the alleged protection of Danish Jews in 1942. Danish Jews were not required to wear the Star of David. And the Christians themselves threatened to wear the Star of David. If they were forced to do so.
  • Christian X of Denmark was also made King of Iceland. and was in fact the only king to rule over the sovereignty of Iceland. Christian automatically became King of Iceland in 1918 due to the merger with the Danish-Icelandic Act of Union. Because he was the ruler of Denmark at that time. The regime ended in 1944 when Iceland decided to end all ties with Denmark and become a republic in its own right.
  • Christian was baptized on 31 October 1870 in the chapel of Christiansborg Palace. The baptism was conducted by Bishop Hans Lassen Martensen of New Zealand.
  • The next major event occurred during 1940 when the Germans launched a surprise attack on Denmark. The attack took place at 4 pm on 9 April. Christian X of Denmark and the entire government had surrendered against the German invasion. Because he was convinced that the small Danish army was no match for the large German army. He had successfully negotiated with the Germans for political independence in local affairs.

FAQ

Q:- What is the father’s name of Christian X of Denmark?

A:- Frederick VIII of Denmark

Q:- What is Christian X of Denmark’s wife’s name?

A :- Alexandrine of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (m. 1898–1947)

Q :- Where was Christian X of Denmark born?

A :- 26 September 1870, Charlottenlund Palace, Copenhagen, Denmark

Q :- What is Christian X of Denmark Height?

A :- 2.01 m

Q :- Where was Christian X of Denmark Burial?

A :- Roskilde Cathedral, Roskilde, Denmark